The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory
presents

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### Bracelet Diagram

The bracelet shows tones that are in this scale, starting from the top (12 o'clock), going clockwise in ascending semitones. The "i" icon marks imperfect tones that do not have a tone a fifth above. Dotted lines indicate axes of symmetry.

### Tonnetz Diagram

Tonnetz diagrams are popular in Neo-Riemannian theory. Notes are arranged in a lattice where perfect 5th intervals are from left to right, major third are northeast, and major 6th intervals are northwest. Other directions are inverse of their opposite. This diagram helps to visualize common triads (they're triangles) and circle-of-fifth relationships (horizontal lines).

### Keyboard Diagram

Other diagrams coming soon!

## Common Names

Names are messy, inconsistent, polysemic, and non-bijective. If you see a name with lots of citations beside it, that's a good measure of credulity.

• #### Carnatic Numbered Melakarta

• 19th Melakarta Raga[0]
• #### Western Altered

• Aeolian 7[1][2][3]

• FUQian[4]
• #### Carnatic

• Raga Jhankara Bhramavi[8][9][10][11][12]

• #### Zeitler

• Phrorian[13]

## Analysis

#### Cardinality

Cardinality is the count of how many pitches are in the scale.

7 (heptatonic)

#### Pitch Class Set

The tones in this scale, expressed as numbers from 0 to 11

{0,2,3,5,7,8,9}

#### Forte Number

A code assigned by theorist Allen Forte, for this pitch class set and all of its transpositional (rotation) and inversional (reflection) transformations.

7-29

#### Rotational Symmetry

Some scales have rotational symmetry, sometimes known as "limited transposition". If there are any rotational symmetries, these are the intervals of periodicity.

none

#### Reflection Axes

If a scale has an axis of reflective symmetry, then it can transform into itself by inversion. It also implies that the scale has Ridge Tones. Notably an axis of reflection can occur directly on a tone or half way between two tones.

none

#### Palindromicity

A palindromic scale has the same pattern of intervals both ascending and descending.

no

#### Chirality

A chiral scale can not be transformed into its inverse by rotation. If a scale is chiral, then it has an enantiomorph.

yes
enantiomorph: 1721

#### Hemitonia

A hemitone is two tones separated by a semitone interval. Hemitonia describes how many such hemitones exist.

3 (trihemitonic)

#### Cohemitonia

A cohemitone is an instance of two adjacent hemitones. Cohemitonia describes how many such cohemitones exist.

1 (uncohemitonic)

#### Imperfections

An imperfection is a tone which does not have a perfect fifth above it in the scale. This value is the quantity of imperfections in this scale.

2

#### Modes

Modes are the rotational transformations of this scale. This number includes the scale itself, so the number is usually the same as its cardinality; unless there are rotational symmetries then there are fewer modes.

7

#### Prime Form

Describes if this scale is in prime form, using the Starr/Rahn algorithm.

no
prime: 727

#### Generator

Indicates if the scale can be constructed using a generator, and an origin.

none

#### Deep Scale

A deep scale is one where the interval vector has 6 different digits, an indicator of maximum hierarchization.

no

#### Interval Structure

Defines the scale as the sequence of intervals between one tone and the next.

[2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 3]

#### Interval Vector

Describes the intervallic content of the scale, read from left to right as the number of occurences of each interval size from semitone, up to six semitones.

<3, 4, 4, 3, 5, 2>

#### Proportional Saturation Vector

First described by Michael Buchler (2001), this is a vector showing the prominence of intervals relative to the maximum and minimum possible for the scale's cardinality. A saturation of 0 means the interval is present minimally, a saturation of 1 means it is the maximum possible.

<0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 0, 0.75, 0.5>

#### Interval Spectrum

The same as the Interval Vector, but expressed in a syntax used by Howard Hanson.

p5m3n4s4d3t2

#### Distribution Spectra

Describes the specific interval sizes that exist for each generic interval size. Each generic <g> has a spectrum {n,...}. The Spectrum Width is the difference between the highest and lowest values in each spectrum.

<1> = {1,2,3}
<2> = {2,3,4,5}
<3> = {4,5,6}
<4> = {6,7,8}
<5> = {7,8,9,10}
<6> = {9,10,11}

#### Spectra Variation

Determined by the Distribution Spectra; this is the sum of all spectrum widths divided by the scale cardinality.

2

#### Maximally Even

A scale is maximally even if the tones are optimally spaced apart from each other.

no

#### Maximal Area Set

A scale is a maximal area set if a polygon described by vertices dodecimetrically placed around a circle produces the maximal interior area for scales of the same cardinality. All maximally even sets have maximal area, but not all maximal area sets are maximally even.

no

#### Interior Area

Area of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle, ie a circle with radius of 1.

2.549

#### Polygon Perimeter

Perimeter of the polygon described by vertices placed for each tone of the scale dodecimetrically around a unit circle.

5.967

#### Myhill Property

A scale has Myhill Property if the Distribution Spectra have exactly two specific intervals for every generic interval.

no

#### Centre of Gravity Distance

When tones of a scale are imagined as physical objects of equal weight arranged around a unit circle, this is the distance from the center of the circle to the center of gravity for all the tones. A perfectly balanced scale has a CoG distance of zero.

0.104579

#### Ridge Tones

Ridge Tones are those that appear in all transpositions of a scale upon the members of that scale. Ridge Tones correspond directly with axes of reflective symmetry.

none

#### Propriety

Also known as Rothenberg Propriety, named after its inventor. Propriety describes whether every specific interval is uniquely mapped to a generic interval. A scale is either "Proper", "Strictly Proper", or "Improper".

Improper

#### Heteromorphic Profile

Defined by Norman Carey (2002), the heteromorphic profile is an ordered triple of (c, a, d) where c is the number of contradictions, a is the number of ambiguities, and d is the number of differences. When c is zero, the scale is Proper. When a is also zero, the scale is Strictly Proper.

(4, 28, 92)

#### Coherence Quotient

The Coherence Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of coherence failures (ambiguity or contradiction) in the scale, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A high coherence quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a maximally complex scale.

0.771

#### Sameness Quotient

The Sameness Quotient is a score between 0 and 1, indicating the proportion of differences in the heteromorphic profile, against the maximum possible for a cardinality. A higher quotient indicates a less complex scale, whereas a quotient of 0 indicates a scale with maximum complexity.

0.27

## Tertian Harmonic Chords

Tertian chords are made from alternating members of the scale, ie built from "stacked thirds". Not all scales lend themselves well to tertian harmony.

## Generator

This scale has no generator.

These are the common triads (major, minor, augmented and diminished) that you can create from members of this scale.

* Pitches are shown with C as the root

G♯{8,0,3}331.43
dm{2,5,9}241.86
fm{5,8,0}321.29
{9,0,3}231.57

view full size

Above is a graph showing opportunities for parsimonious voice leading between triads*. Each line connects two triads that have two common tones, while the third tone changes by one generic scale step.

Diameter 4 2 no fm cm, dm

## Modes

Modes are the rotational transformation of this scale. Scale 941 can be rotated to make 6 other scales. The 1st mode is itself.

 2nd mode:Scale 1259 Locrian 6 3rd mode:Scale 2677 Ionian 5 4th mode:Scale 1693 Dorian 4 5th mode:Scale 1447 Mela Ratnangi 6th mode:Scale 2771 Lydian 2 7th mode:Scale 3433 Super Lydian Augmented

## Prime

The prime form of this scale is Scale 727

 Scale 727 Alt 367

## Complement

The heptatonic modal family [941, 1259, 2677, 1693, 1447, 2771, 3433] (Forte: 7-29) is the complement of the pentatonic modal family [331, 709, 1201, 1577, 2213] (Forte: 5-29)

## Inverse

The inverse of a scale is a reflection using the root as its axis. The inverse of 941 is 1721

 Scale 1721 Dominant 2

## Interval Matrix

Each row is a generic interval, cells contain the specific size of each generic. Useful for identifying contradictions and ambiguities.

## Hierarchizability

Based on the work of Niels Verosky, hierarchizability is the measure of repeated patterns with "place-finding" remainder bits, applied recursively to the binary representation of a scale. For a full explanation, read Niels' paper, Hierarchizability as a Predictor of Scale Candidacy. The variable k is the maximum number of remainders allowed at each level of recursion, for them to count as an increment of hierarchizability. A high hierarchizability score is a good indicator of scale candidacy, ie a measure of usefulness for producing pleasing music. There is a strong correlation between scales with maximal hierarchizability and scales that are in popular use in a variety of world musical traditions.

kHierarchizabilityBreakdown PatternDiagram
11101101011100
23([01][01]1)10([01][01]1)
33([01][01]1)10([01][01]1)
43([01][01]1)10([01][01]1)
53([01][01]1)10([01][01]1)

## Enantiomorph

Only scales that are chiral will have an enantiomorph. Scale 941 is chiral, and its enantiomorph is scale 1721

 Scale 1721 Dominant 2

## Center of Gravity

If tones of the scale are imagined as identical physical objects spaced around a unit circle, the center of gravity is the point where the scale is balanced.

Position with origin in the center (0, 0.104579) 0.104579 180 600

## Transformations:

In the abbreviation, the subscript number after "T" is the number of semitones of tranposition, "M" means the pitch class is multiplied by 5, and "I" means the result is inverted. Operation is an identical way to express the same thing; the syntax is <a,b> where each tone of the set x is transformed by the equation y = ax + b. A note about the multipliers: multiplying by 1 changes nothing, multiplying by 11 produces the same result as inversion. 5 is the only non-degenerate multiplier, with the multiplier 7 producing the inverse of 5.

Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0 <1,0> 941       T0I <11,0> 1721
T1 <1,1> 1882      T1I <11,1> 3442
T2 <1,2> 3764      T2I <11,2> 2789
T3 <1,3> 3433      T3I <11,3> 1483
T4 <1,4> 2771      T4I <11,4> 2966
T5 <1,5> 1447      T5I <11,5> 1837
T6 <1,6> 2894      T6I <11,6> 3674
T7 <1,7> 1693      T7I <11,7> 3253
T8 <1,8> 3386      T8I <11,8> 2411
T9 <1,9> 2677      T9I <11,9> 727
T10 <1,10> 1259      T10I <11,10> 1454
T11 <1,11> 2518      T11I <11,11> 2908
Abbrev Operation Result Abbrev Operation Result
T0M <5,0> 3611      T0MI <7,0> 2831
T1M <5,1> 3127      T1MI <7,1> 1567
T2M <5,2> 2159      T2MI <7,2> 3134
T3M <5,3> 223      T3MI <7,3> 2173
T4M <5,4> 446      T4MI <7,4> 251
T5M <5,5> 892      T5MI <7,5> 502
T6M <5,6> 1784      T6MI <7,6> 1004
T7M <5,7> 3568      T7MI <7,7> 2008
T8M <5,8> 3041      T8MI <7,8> 4016
T9M <5,9> 1987      T9MI <7,9> 3937
T10M <5,10> 3974      T10MI <7,10> 3779
T11M <5,11> 3853      T11MI <7,11> 3463

The transformations that map this set to itself are: T0

## Nearby Scales:

These are other scales that are similar to this one, created by adding a tone, removing a tone, or moving one note up or down a semitone.

 Scale 943 Aerygyllic Scale 937 Stothimic Scale 939 Phrygian 7 Scale 933 Dadimic Scale 949 Mela Mararanjani Scale 957 Phronyllic Scale 909 Katarimic Scale 925 Alt 257 Scale 973 Mela Syamalangi Scale 1005 Radyllic Scale 813 Larimic Scale 877 Locrian 27 Scale 685 Raga Suddha Bangala Scale 429 Koptimic Scale 1453 Aeolian Scale 1965 Raga Mukhari Scale 2989 Bebop Minor

This scale analysis was created by Ian Ring, Canadian Composer of works for Piano, and total music theory nerd. Scale notation generated by Lilypond, graph visualization by Graphviz, audio by TiMIDIty and FFMPEG. All other diagrams and visualizations are © Ian Ring. Some scale names used on this and other pages were invented by living persons, and used here with permission where required.

Pitch spelling algorithm employed here is adapted from a method by Uzay Bora, Baris Tekin Tezel, and Alper Vahaplar. (DOI, Patent owner: Dokuz Eylül University, Used with Permission.

Tons of background resources contributed to the production of this summary; for a list of these peruse this Bibliography. Special thanks to Richard Repp for helping with technical accuracy, and George Howlett for assistance with naming the Carnatic ragas. Thanks to Niels Verosky for collaborating on the Hierarchizability diagrams. Thanks to u/howaboot for inventing the Center of Gravity metrics.